Published articles citing use of the C-BARQ

  1. Arata, S., Takeuchi, Y., Inoue, M. & Mori, Y. 2014. “Reactivity to stimuli” is a temperamental factor contributing to canine aggression. PLOS ONE, 9(6): e100767.
  2. Arvelius, P., Asp, H.E., Fikse, W.F., Strandberg, E. & Nilsson, K. 2014. Genetic analysis of a temperament test as a tool to select against everyday life fearfulness in Rough Collie. Journal of Animal Science, 92: 4843-4855.
  3. Asp, H.E., Fiske, W.F., Nilsson, K. & Strandberg, E. 2015. Breed differences in everyday behavior of dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 169: 69-77.
  4. Barnard, S., Siracusa, C., Reisner, I., Valsecchi, P. and Serpell, J.A. 2012. Validity of model devices used to assess canine temperament in behavioral tests. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 138: 79-87.
  5. Bennett, S.L., Litster, A., Weng, H-Y., Walker, S.L. & Leuscher, A.U. 2012. Investigating behavior assessment instruments to predict aggression in dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 141: 139-148.
  6. Bosch, G., Beerda, B., Beynen, A.C., van der Borg, J.A.M., van der Poel, A.F.B. and Hendriks, W.H. 2009. Dietary tryptophan supplementation in privately owned mildly anxious dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 121: 197-205.
  7. Bowen, J., Fatjó, J., Serpell, J.A., Bulbena-Cabré, Leighton, E. and Bulbena, A. 2019. First evidence for an association between joint hypermobility and excitability in a non-human species, the domestic dog. Nature Scientific Reports, 9: 8629. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-45096-0
  8. Canejo-Teixeira, R., Armelim Armiro, P., Serpell, J.A., Baptista, L.V. and Nisa, M.M.R.E. 2018. Evaluation of the factor structure of the Canine Behavioural Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ) in European Portuguese. PLOS ONE, 13(12): e0209852. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0209852
  9. Cavalli, C.M., Carballo, F., Dzik, M.V., Underwood, S. and Bentosela, M. Are animal-assisted activity dogs different from pet dogs? A comparison of their sociocognitive abilities. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 23: 76-81.
  10. Cook, P.F., Spivak, M. & Berns, G.S. 2014. Jealousy in dogs? Evidence from brain imaging. Animal Sentience, 2018.117.
  11. Cook, P.F., Pritchard, A., Spivak, M. & Berns, G.S. 2014. One pair of hands is not like another: Caudate BOLD response in dogs depends on signal source and canine temperament. PeerJ, 2:e596; DOI: 10.7717/peerj.596.
  12. Chung, T., Park, C., Kwon, Y., Yeon, S. 2016. Prevalence of canine behavior problems related to dog-human relationship in South Korea—a pilot study. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 11: 26-30.
  13. Dalla Villa, P., Barnard, S., Di Nardo, A., Ianetti, L., Podaliri-Vulpiani, M., Trentini, R., Serpell, J.A. & Siracusa, C. 2016. Validation of the Socially Acceptable Behaviour (SAB) test in a central Italy pet dog population. Veterinaria Italiana, DOI: 10.12834/VetIt.321.1283.3.
  14. De Meester, R., De Bacquer, D., Peremens, K., Vermeire, S., Planta, D.J., Coopman, F. and Audenaert, K. 2008. A preliminary study on the use of the Socially Acceptable Behaviour Test as a test for shyness/confidence in the temperament of dogs. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 3: 161-170.
  15. Doane, M. and Serenbo, S. 2019. A modified combined C-BARQ and QoL for both the companion dog and its owner. An embryo to a companion dog welfare assessment? Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 213: 91-106.
  16. Dodman, N.H., Brown, D.C. and Serpell, J.A. 2018. Associations between owner personality and psychological status and the prevalence of canine behavior problems. PLOS ONE, 13(2): e0192846. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0192846
  17. Dreschel, N.A. 2010. The effects of fear and anxiety on health and lifespan in pet dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 125: 157-162.
  18. Dreschel, N.A. and Granger, D.A. 2005. Physiological and behavioral reactivity to stress in thunder storm-phobic dogs and their caregivers. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 95: 153-168.
  19. Duffy, D.L. and Serpell, J.A. 2008. Behavioral assessment of guide and service dogs. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 3: 186-188 (Abstract).
  20. Duffy, D.L., Hsu, Y. and Serpell, J.A. 2008. Breed differences in canine aggression. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 114: 441-460.
  21. Duffy, D.L. & Serpell, J.A. 2012. Predictive validity of a method for evaluating temperament in young guide and service dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 138: 99-109.
  22. Duffy, D.L., Kruger, K. & Serpell, J.A. 2014. Evaluation of a behavioral assessment tool for dogs relinquished to shelters. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 117: 601-609.
  23. Farhoody, P., Mallawaarachchi, I., Tarwater, P.M., Serpell, J.A., Duffy, D.L. and Zink, C. 2018. Aggression toward familiar people, strangers, and conspecifics in gonadectomized and intact dogs. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2018.00018.
  24. Farmer-Dougan, V., Quick, A., Harper, K., Schmidt, K. & Campbell, D. (2014). Behavior of hearing or vision impaired and normal hearing and vision dogs (Canis lupus familiaris): Not the same, but not that different. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 9: 316-323.
  25. Flint, H.E., Coe, J.B., Serpell, J.A., Pearl, D.L. & Niel, L. 2017. Risk factors associated with strangerdirected aggression in domestic dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 197: 45-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2017.08.007
  26. Foyer, P., Bjallerhag, N., Wilsson, E. & Jensen, P. 2014. Behavior and experiences of dogs during the first year of life predict the outcome in a later temperament test. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 155: 93-100.
  27. González-Martínez, A., Martínez, M.F., Rosado, B., Luno, I., Santamarina, G., Suárez, M.L., Camino, F., de la Cruz, L.F. and Diéguez, F.J. 2019. Association between puppy classes and adulthood behavior of the dog. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, ??: 1-6.
  28. González-Ramírez, M., Quezada-Berumen, L. and Landero-Hernández, R. 2017. Assessment of canine behaviors using C-BARQ in a sample from northern Mexico. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 20: 52-58.
  29. González-Ramírez, M., Vanegas-Farfano, M. and Landero-Hernández, R. 2018. Differences in stress and happiness between owners who perceive their dogs as well behaved or poorly behaved when they are left alone. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 28: 1-5.
  30. Ghirlanda, S., Acerbi, A., Herzog, H. and Serpell, J.A. 2013. Fashion vs. function in cultural evolution: The case of dog breed popularity. PLOS ONE, 8(9): e74770
  31. Grigg, E.K., Nibblet, B.M., Sacks, B.N., Hack, R., Serpell, J.A. & Hart, L.A. 2016. Genetic and behavioral characteristics of the St. Kitts ‘island dog.’ Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 178: 88- 95.
  32. Hare, E., Kelsey, K., Serpell, J.A. and Otto, C.M. 2018. Behavior differences between urban search-and-rescue and pet dogs. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 5:118. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2018.00118.
  33. Hoffman, C.L., Chen, P., Serpell, J.A. and Jacobson, K.C. 2013. Do dog characteristics predict the quality of the relationship between dogs and their owners? Human-Animal Interaction Bulletin, 1: 20-37.
  34. Hoffman, C.L. and Suchak, M. 2017. Dog rivalry impacts following behavior in a decision-making task involving food. Animal Cognition, DOI 10.1007/s10071-017-1091-9.
  35. Hsu, Y. & Serpell, J.A. 2003. Development and validation of a questionnaire for measuring behavior and temperament traits in pet dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 223:1293-1300.
  36. Hsu, Y. and Sun, L. 2010. Factors associated with aggressive responses in pet dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 123: 108-123.
  37. Hunt, M., Otto, C.M., Serpell, J.A. and Alvarez, J. 2012. Interactions between handler well-being and canine health and behavior in search and rescue teams. Anthrozoös, 25: 323-335.
  38. Ilska, J., Haskell, M.J., Blott, S.C., Sanchez-Molano, E., Polgar, Z., Lofgren, S.E., Clements, D.N. and Wiener, P. 2017. Genetic characterization of dog personality traits. Genetics, 206: 1101- 1111.
  39. Jakuba T, Polcova Z, Fedakova D, Kottferova J, Marekova J, Fejsakova M, Ondrasovicova O and Ondrasovic M. (2013) Differences in evaluation of a dog's temperament by individual members of the same household. Society & Animals, 21: 582-589.
  40. Jancovcevic, A., Mustaca, A. and Bentosela, M. 2012. Do more sociable dogs gaze longer to the human face than less sociable ones? Behavioural Processes, 90: 217-222.
  41. Kaneko, F., Arata, S., Takeuchi, Y. & Mori, Y. 2013. Analysis of associations between behavioral traits and four types of aggression in Shiba Inu. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 75: 1297- 1301, doi: 10.1292/jvms.13-0082
  42. Kato, M., Miyaji, K., Ohtani, N. and Ohta, M. 2012. Effects of prescription diet on dealing with stressful situations and performance of anxiety-related behaviors in privately owned anxious dogs. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 7: 21-26.
  43. Kutsumi, A., Nagasawa, M., Ohta, M. & Ohtani, N. (2013). Importance of puppy training for future behavior of the dog. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 75: 141-149.
  44. LaFollette, M., Rodriguez, K.E., Ogata, N. and O’Haire, M.E. 2019. Military veterans and their PTSD service dogs: Associations between training methods, PTSD severity, dog behavior, and the human-animal bond. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 6:23. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2019.00023
  45. Le Brech, S., Koscinczuk, P., Rossner, M.V. 2008. Canine aggression problems. Preliminary study in the cities of Corrientes and Resistencia, Argentina. Revista Veterinaria, 19: 50-53.
  46. Le Brech, S., Amat, M., Mariotti, V.M., Ruiz de la Torre, J.L. and Manteca, X. 2009. Evaluation of behavioral characteristics of dogs with owner-directed aggression through the C-BARQ. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 5: 54 (Abstract).
  47. Liinamo, A-E., Van den Berg, L., Schilder, M.B.H., Leegwater, P.A.J., van Arendonk, J.A.M. & van Oost, B.A. 2007. Genetic variation in aggression-related traits in Golden Retriever dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 104: 95-106.
  48. Lofgren, S.E., Wiener, P., Blott, S.S., Sanchez-Molano, E., Woolliams, J.A., Clements, D.N. and Haskell, M.J. 2014. Management and personality of Labrador retriever dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 156: 44-53.
  49. MacLean, E.L., Guesquiere, L.R., Gee, N.R., Levy, K., Martin W.L. and Carter, C.S. 2017. Endogenous oxytocine, vasopressin, and aggression in domestic dogs. Frontiers in Psychology, https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01613.
  50. MacLean, E.L., Guesquiere, L.R., Gruen, M.E., Sherman, B.L., Martin W.L. and Carter, C.S. 2017. Effects of affiliative human-animal interaction on dog salivary and plasma oxytocin and vasopression. Frontiers in Psychology, 8: 1606. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01606.
  51. Marshall-Pescini, S. Valsecchi, P., Petak, I., Accorsi, P.A. and Prato Previde, E. 2008. Does training make you smarter? The effects of training on dogs’ performance in a problem-solving task. Behavioral Processes, 78: 449-454.
  52. Matos, R.E., Jakuba, T., Mino, I., Fejsakova, M., Demeova, A., Kottferova, J., 2015. Characteristics and risk factors of dog aggression in the Slovak Republic. Vet. Med. (Praha), 60: 432–445.
  53. McGreevy, P.D., Georgevsky, D., Carrasco, J., Valenzuela, M., Duffy, D.L. and Serpell, J.A. (2013) Dog behavior co-varies with height, bodyweight and skull shape. PLOS ONE 8(12): e80529. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080529
  54. McGreevy, P.D., Wilson, B., Starling, M. and Serpell, J.A. 2018. Behavioral risks in male dogs with minimal lifetime exposure to gonadal hormones may complicate population-control benefits of desexing. PLOS ONE, 13(5): e0196284, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0196284.
  55. McMillan, F.D., Duffy, D.L. & Serpell, J.A. 2011. Mental health of dogs formerly used as ‘breeding stock’ in commercial breeding establishments. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 135: 86-94.
  56. McMillan, F.D., Serpell, J.A., Duffy, D.L., Masaoud, E. and Dohoo, I.R. 2013. Differences in behavioral and psychological characteristics between dogs obtained as puppies from pet stores and those obtained from noncommercial breeders. JAVMA, 242 (10): 1359-1363.
  57. McMillan, F.D., Duffy, D.L., Stephen L. Zawistowski & Serpell, J.A. 2015. Behavioral and psychological characteristics of canine victims of abuse. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 18: 92-111.
  58. McMillan, F.D., Vanderstichel, R., Stryhn, H., Yu, J. and Serpell, J.A. 2016. Differences in behavioral characteristics between dogs removed from hoarding situations and a convenience sample of pet dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 178: 69-79.
  59. Nagasawa, M., Tsujimura, A., Tateishi, K., Mogi, K., Ohta, M., Serpell, J.A. & Kikusui, T. 2011. Assessment of the factorial structure of the C-BARQ in Japan. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 73: 869-875.
  60. Nagasawa, M., Mogi, K. & Kikusui, T. 2012. Continued distress among abandoned dogs in Fukushima. Scientific Reports, 2: 724, DOI: 10.1038/srep00724.
  61. Nagasawa, M., Kanbayashi, S., Mogi, K., Serpell, J.A. & Kikusui, T. 2015. Comparison of behavioral characteristics of dogs in the United States and Japan. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, DOI: 10.1292/jvms.15-0253.
  62. Otto, C.M., Downend, A.B., Serpell, J.A., Ziemer, L.S. & Saunders, H.M. 2004. Medical and behavioral surveillance of dogs deployed to the World Trade Center and the Pentagon from October 2001 to June 2002. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 225(6): 861-867.
  63. Packer, R.M.A., Law, T.H., Davies, E., Zanghi, B., Pan, Y. & Volk, H.A. 2016. Effects of ketogenic diet on ADHD-like behavior in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behavior, 55: 62-68.
  64. Packer, R.M., De Risio, L., and Volk, H.A. 2017. Investigating the potential of the anti-epileptic drug imepitoin as a treatment for co-morbid anxiety in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. BMC Vet. Res.,13: 90
  65. Paroz, C., Gebhardt-Heinrich, S.G. & Steiger, A. 2008. Reliability and validity of behaviour tests in Hovawart dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 115: 67-81.
  66. Rosa, S.A., Jarrel, L., Soares, G.M. & Paixão, R.L. 2017. Translating and validating a canine behavioral assessment questionnaire (C-BARQ) to Brazilian Portuguese. Archives of Veterinary Science, 22:10-17 (in Portuguese w/ English Abstract).
  67. Roth, L.S.V., Faresjö, A., Theodorsson, E. and Jensen, P. 2016. Hair cortisol varies with season and lifestyle and relates to human interactions in German shepherd dogs. Nature Scientific Reports, 6: 19631. DOI: 10.1038/srep19631.
  68. Rutherford, L., Wessman, A., Rusbridge, C., McGonnell, I., Abeyesinghe, S., Bum, C. and Volk, H. 2012. Questionnaire-based behaviour analysis of Cavalier King Charles spaniels with neuropathic pain due to Chiari-like malformation and syringomyelia. Veterinary Journal, 194(3): 294-298.
  69. Schneider, L.A., Delfabbro, P.H. and Burns, N.R. 2013. Temperament and lateralization in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 8: 124-134.
  70. Segurson, S., Serpell, J.A. & Hart, B.L. 2005. Evaluation of a behavioral assessment questionnaire for use in the characterization of behavioral problems in dogs relinquished to animal shelters, Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 227(11):1755-1761.
  71. Serpell, J.A. 2018. Jealousy? Or just hostility toward other dogs. The risks of jumping to conclusions. Animal Sentience, 2018.135.
  72. Serpell, J.A. 2019. How happy is your pet? The problem of subjectivity in the assessment of companion animal welfare. Animal Welfare, 28: 57-66.
  73. Serpell, J.A. and Hsu, Y. 2005. Effects of breed, sex, and neuter status on trainability in dogs. Anthrozoös, 18: 196-207.
  74. Serpell, J.A. & Duffy, D.L. 2014. Dog breeds and their behavior. In Domestic Dog Cognition and Behavior, ed. A. Horowitz. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp. 31-57.
  75. Serpell, J.A. & Duffy, D.L. 2016. Aspects of juvenile and adolescent environment predict aggression and fear in 12 month-old guide dogs. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 3:49. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2016.00049.
  76. Siniscalchi, M., d’Ingeo, S., Fornelli, S. and Quaranta, A. 2018. Laterilized behavior and cardiac activity of dogs in response to human emotional vocalizations. Nature Scientific Reports, 8: 77. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-18417-4
  77. Siracusa, C., Di Nardo, A., Serpell, J., Iannetti, L., Podaliri, M., Trentini, R., & Dalla Villa, P. 2010. A comparison between a direct and an indirect method for assessing aggressiveness in dogs, Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 5: 55 (Abstract)
  78. Smith, B.P., Browne, M. & Serpell, J.A. 2017. Owner-reported behavioral characteristics of dingoes (Canis dingo) living as companion animals: A comparison to ‘modern’ and ‘ancient’ dog breeds. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 187: 77-84.
  79. Svartberg, K. 2005. A comparison of behaviour in test and in everyday life: Evidence of three consistent boldness-related personality traits in dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 91: 103-128.
  80. Tamimi, N., Jamshidi, S., Serpell, J.A., Mousavi, S. & Ghasempourabadi, Z. 2015. Assessment of the C-BARQ for evaluating dog behavior in Iran. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 10: 36-40.
  81. Tandon, D., Ressler, K., Petticord, D., Papa, A., Jiranek, J., Wilkinson, R., Kartzinel, R.Y., Ostrander, E.A., Burney, N., Borden, C., Udell, M.A.R. and VonHoldt, B.M. 2019. Homozygosity for mobile element insertions associated with WBSCR17 could predict success in assistance dog training programs. Genes, 10: 438. doi: 10.3390/genes10060439
  82. Tonoike, A., Nagasawa, M., Mogi, K., Serpell, J.A., Ohtsuki, H. and Kikusui, T. 2015. Comparison of owner-reported behavioral characteristics among genetically clustered breeds of dog (Canis familiaris). Scientific Reports, 5: 17710. DOI: 10.1038/srep17710.
  83. Van den Berg, L., Schilder, M.B.H., de Vries, H., Leegwater, P.A.J. & van Oost, B.A. 2006. Phenotyping of aggressive behavior in golden retriever dogs with a questionnaire. Behavior Genetics, 36: 882-902.
  84. Van den Berg, L., Vos-Loohuis, M., Schilder, M.B.H., van Oost, B.A., Hazewinkel, H.A.W., Wade, C.M., Karlsson, E.K., Lindblad-Toh, K. Liinamo, A.E. & Leegwater, P.A.J. 2008. Evaluation of the serotonergic genes htr1A, htr1B, htr2A and slc6A4 in aggressive behavior of golden retriever dogs. Behavior Genetics, 38: 55-66.
  85. Van den Berg, S.M., Heuven, H.C.M., Van den Berg, L., Duffy, D.L. and Serpell, J.A. 2010. Evaluation of the C-BARQ as a measure of stranger-directed aggression in three common dog breeds. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 124: 136-141.
  86. Van der Borg, J.A.M. , Beerda, B. , Ooms, M. , de Souza, A.S. , van Hagen, M. , Kemp, B. 2010. Evaluation of behaviour testing for human directed aggression in dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 128 (1-4), pp. 78-90.
  87. Van der Borg, J.A.M., Graat, E.A.M. and Beerda, B. 2017. Behavioral testing based breeding policy reduces the prevalence of fear and aggression related behavior in Rottweilers. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2017.06.004
  88. Van Rooy, D., Arnott, E.R., Thompson, P.C., McGreevy , P.D. and Wade, C.M. 2018. Using an owner-based questionnaire to phenotype dogs with separation-related distress: Do owners know what their dogs do when they are absent. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 23: 58-65.
  89. Van Rooy, D., Haase, B., McGreevy , P.D., Thompson, P.C. and Wade, C.M. 2016. Evaluating candidate genes oprm1, drd2, avpr1a, and oxtr in golden retrievers with separation related behaviors. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 16: 22-27.
  90. Van Rooy, D., Thompson, P.C., McGreevy , P.D. and Wade, C.M. 2018. Risk factors of separation related behaviors in Australian retrievers. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, xxxx
  91. Vermeire, S., Audenaert, K., Dobbeleir, A., De Meester, R., Vandermeulen, E., Waelbers, T. and Peremens, K. 2009. Regional cerebral blood flow changes in dogs with anxiety disorders, measured with SPECT. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 3: 342-349.
  92. Vermeire, S., Audenaert, K., Dobbeleir, A., De Meester, R., De Vos, P.J. and Peremens, K. 2009. Evaluation of the brain 5-HT2A receptor binding index in dogs with anxiety disorders, measured with 123I-51-R91150 and SPECT. Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 50: 284-289.
  93. Vermeire, S. et al. 2011. Neuro-imaging the serotonin 2A receptor as a valid biomarker for canine behavioural disorders. Research in Veterinary Science, 91: 465-472.
  94. Vermeire, S., Audenaert, K., de Meester, R., Vandermeulen, E., Waelbers, T., De Spiegeleer, B., Eersels, J., Dobbeleir, A. and Peremens, K. 2012. Serotonin 2A receptor, serotonin transporter and dopamine transporter alterations in dogs with compulsive behavior as a promising model for human obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 201: 78-87.
  95. Vlerick, L., Peremens, K., Dockx, R. et al. 2018. The influence of the subanaesthetic ketamine on regional cerebral blood flow in healthy dogs measured with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT. PLOS ONE, e0209316. https://doi.org/10.1371/journalpone.0209316.
  96. Wauthier, L.M. and Williams, J.M. 2018. Using the mini C-BARQ to investigate the effects of puppy farming on dog behavior. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 206: 75-86.
  97. Wells, D.L., Hepper, P.G., Milligan, A.D.S. and Barnard, S. 2019. Lack of association between paw preference and behaviour problems in the domestic dog, Canis familiaris. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 210: 81-87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2018.10.008
  98. Wilson, B., Serpell, J.A., Herzog, H. and McGreevy, P. 2018. Prevailing clusters of canine behavioural traits in historical US demand for dog breeds (1926–2005). Animals, 8: 197. doi: 10.3390/ani8110197
  99. Wormald, D., Lawrence, A.J., Carter, G. and Fisher, A.D. 2017. Reduced heart rate variability in pet dogs affected by anxiety-related behavior problems. Physiology & Behavior, 168: 122-127.
  100. Zapata, I., Serpell, J.A. & Alvarez, C.E. 2016. Genetic mapping of canine fear and aggression. BMC Genomics, 17:572. doi: 10.1186/s12864-016-2936-3

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